Offences taken into consideration

Applicability

In accordance with section 120 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, the Sentencing Council issues this definitive guideline. It applies to all offenders whose cases are dealt with on or after 11 June 2012.

Section 125(1) of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides that when sentencing offences committed after 6 April 2010:

“Every court -

  1. must, in sentencing an offender, follow any sentencing guideline which is relevant to the offender’s case, and
  2. must, in exercising any other function relating to the sentencing of offenders, follow any sentencing guidelines which are relevant to the exercise of the function,

unless the court is satisfied that it would be contrary to the interests of justice to do so.”

This guideline applies where an offender admits the commission of other offences in the course of sentencing proceedings and requests those other offences to be taken into consideration.1

 

1 s.305 Criminal Justice Act 2003 and s161(1) Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000

General principles

When sentencing an offender who requests offences to be taken into consideration (TICs), courts should pass a total sentence which reflects all the offending behaviour. The sentence must be just and proportionate and must not exceed the statutory maximum for the conviction offence.

Offences to be taken into consideration

The court has discretion as to whether or not to take TICs into account. In exercising its discretion the court should take into account that TICs are capable of reflecting the offender’s overall criminality. The court is likely to consider that the fact that the offender has assisted the police (particularly if the offences would not otherwise have been detected) and avoided the need for further proceedings demonstrates a genuine determination by the offender to ‘wipe the slate clean’.1

It is generally undesirable for TICs to be accepted in the following circumstances:

  • where the TIC is likely to attract a greater sentence than the conviction offence;
  • where it is in the public interest that the TIC should be the subject of a separate charge;
  • where the offender would avoid a prohibition, ancillary order or similar consequence which it would have been desirable to impose on conviction. For example:
    • where the TIC attracts mandatory disqualification or endorsement and the offence(s) for which the defendant is to be sentenced do not;
  • where the TIC constitutes a breach of an earlier sentence;2
  • where the TIC is a specified offence for the purposes of section 224 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003, but the conviction offence is non-specified; or
  • where the TIC is not founded on the same facts or evidence or part of a series of offences of the same or similar character (unless the court is satisfied that it is in the interests of justice to do so).

Jurisdiction

The magistrates’ court cannot take into consideration an indictable only offence.

The Crown Court can take into account summary only offences provided the TICs are founded on the same facts or evidence as the indictable charge, or are part of a series of offences of the same or similar character as the indictable conviction offence.3

Procedural safeguards

A court should generally only take offences into consideration if the following procedural provisions have been satisfied:

  • the police or prosecuting authorities have prepared a schedule of offences (TIC schedule) that they consider suitable to be taken into consideration. The TIC schedule should set out the nature of each offence, the date of the offence(s), relevant detail about the offence(s) (including, for example, monetary values of items) and any other brief details that the court should be aware of;
  • a copy of the TIC schedule must be provided to the defendant and his representative (if he has one) before the sentence hearing. The defendant should sign the TIC schedule to provisionally admit the offences;
  • at the sentence hearing, the court should ask the defendant in open court whether he admits each of the offences on the TIC schedule and whether he wishes to have them taken into consideration;4
  • if there is any doubt about the admission of a particular offence, it should not be accepted as a TIC. Special care should be taken with vulnerable and/or unrepresented defendants;
  • if the defendant is committed to the Crown Court for sentence, this procedure must take place again at the Crown Court even if the defendant has agreed to the schedule in the magistrates’ court.

Application

The sentence imposed on an offender should, in most circumstances, be increased to reflect the fact that other offences have been taken into consideration. The court should:

  1. Determine the sentencing starting point for the conviction offence, referring to the relevant definitive sentencing guidelines. No regard should be had to the presence of TICs at this stage.
  2. Consider whether there are any aggravating or mitigating factors that justify an upward or downward adjustment from the starting point.

The presence of TICs should generally be treated as an aggravating feature that justifies an upward adjustment from the starting point. Where there is a large number of TICs, it may be appropriate to move outside the category range, although this must be considered in the context of the case and subject to the principle of totality. The court is limited to the statutory maximum for the conviction offence.

  1. Continue through the sentencing process including:
  • consider whether the frank admission of a number of offences is an indication of a defendant’s remorse or determination and/or demonstration of steps taken to address addiction or offending behaviour;
  • any reduction for a guilty plea should be applied to the overall sentence;
  • the principle of totality;
  • when considering ancillary orders these can be considered in relation to any or all of the TICs, specifically:
    • compensation orders5 – in the magistrate’s court the total compensation cannot exceed the limit for the conviction offence;
    • restitution orders.6

Notes

1 Per Lord Chief Justice, R v Miles [2006] EWCA Crim 256
2 R v Webb (1953) 37 Cr App 82
3 s.40 Criminal Justice Act 1988
4 Anderson v DPP [1978] AC 964
5 s.131(2) Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000
6 s.148 ibid